It is an unusual, festive, medical, economic and political scoreboard: the seventh edition of "Drugs and addictions, essential data", made public on April 18, 2019. The result of the work of the team of specialists of the French observatory of drugs and drug addiction, it offers a remarkable point of view, neither proselyte nor moralist, on the evolution of the consumptions of the substances (legal or not) modifying our state of conscience – and thus exposing to one thousand and one dependencies . As such it is also a document that allows to take the measure of political action vis-à-vis consumptions often perceived as recreational, but also potentially dangerous at the individual and medical level.
"Addictive behaviors question notions as diverse as the dangerousness of behavior and the risk acceptable by everyone, the individual freedom and the impacts caused by the uses of third parties, their cost to society and the responsibility of the public authorities, sums up in his foreword Dr Nicolas Prisse, president of the Interministerial Mission for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors (Mildeca). Opinions, representations and questions are thus numerous and varied. They are also subject to the influence of economic interests that do not spare their efforts to sell more tobacco, alcohol or cannabis (as observed in states that have legalized the recreational or medical use of this drug. product)."
Tobacco and alcohol, unchallengeable legal drugs
We know the general context. According to the surveys based on declarative data, licit substances (tobacco and alcohol) remain the most consumed products in France, whether for experimentation or regular long-term use. With one major difference: adults who smoke daily (27%) are almost three times more likely than people who drink on a daily basis (10%). On the other hand, the use of alcohol (at least once a year) remains a majority social practice, among adults (87% between 18 and 75) and the youngest (78% at 17). In the area of illegal drugs, cannabis remains the first substance consumed (45% of adults test it, 11% use it in the year and 6% in the last month), far ahead of cocaine, whose use concerns seven times fewer people.
"Initiation to other illicit products is rare: except hallucinogenic mushrooms, ecstasy and MDMA (tested by 5% of adults), it concerns less than 3% of the young and adult population. About one in ten French people say they used anxiolytics in the year, while one in five 17-year-olds said they had already used a psychotropic medication (prescription or not). Unlike all other psychoactive products, which are more often consumed by men, the use of psychotropic drugs is almost twice as common among women. "
Easy access for minors
Adolescence remains the main period of introduction to psychoactive products: the first uses occur at the college and tend to settle and diversify over the years. With increased risks related in particular to the brain development of this period of life – a datum that is no longer, today, seriously challenged in the medical and scientific specialized community.
Adolescents follow faithfully the paths taken by previous generations: the three main psychoactive products consumed at this time of life are alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. At 17, out of ten young people, nine have already drunk alcoholic beverages, six have tried cigarettes and four have experimented with cannabis. Thus, one year before their majority and despite the official prohibitions, only a minority of young people did not take any of these three substances (12%). "This reflects the high accessibility of psychoactive substances (licit or illicit)" comments, in a mild euphemism, the OFDT.
Nearly one in ten 17-year-olds report having used alcohol and / or cannabis at least ten times in the past month.
"The scope of these youthful initiations has recently extended to new behaviors such as shisha and e-cigarettes […]. Although the majority of experiments with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis remain limited (in time and in quantities consumed), a significant proportion of adolescents can develop practices likely to affect their schooling, their development or, at longer term, their health and their cognitive abilities. "
"At age 17, a quarter of young people smoke cigarettes daily (25%) and nearly one in ten report having used alcohol and / or cannabis at least ten times in the last month (8% and 7%, respectively). %). Finally, 7.4% of young people of this age are at high risk of problematic cannabis use. "
Half of the French population has already tasted cannabis
But the OFDT also offers a more dynamic view of drug consumption, through changes in time, products and age groups. In the whole population (young and adult), the decline is confirmed for alcohol (whose use has been steadily decreasing since the 1950s) and, more recently, tobacco. The last decade has also seen the emergence of the electronic cigarette, used in particular as a smoking cessation aid tool in spite of the official denial, by the French health authorities, of the major advantages that it offers in terms of reducing the risks of smoking. .
On the other hand, the proportion of cannabis users is increasing among adults-the translation of aging at the same time of the generations having experimented this product in its period of strong diffusion (from the 1990s) and the slowing down of the initiations to cannabis among the younger. "Among young people (under 25 years old), although levels of use of psychoactive products are not negligible, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis are well below levels observed at the beginning of the 2000s, ensures the OFDT. This is particularly true for smoking, whose decline has accelerated since 2014. "
"While the majority of 17-year-olds have tried alcohol, the share of those who have never drunk has almost tripled in fifteen years (14% in 2017). As for cannabis, its level of diffusion is now on a downward trend, but the proportion of problematic users is increasing (a quarter of users in the year at age 17). "
"In contrast, the testing of stimulants (MDMA-ecstasy, cocaine) has increased significantly among minors, although it remains circumscribed to certain segments of the adolescent population (amateurs of the so-called" festive "environment). This boost of stimulants is found in the adult population, particularly with regard to cocaine, which is now reaching a peak (more than 1.6% of users in the year). One of the reasons for this is the increased availability of these products and the positive image they enjoy. "
The rise of synthetic drugs
For a decade now, new synthetic products (NPS) have been used to mimic the effects of traditional illicit drugs. Today their diffusion in France remains limited: the experimentation of synthetic cannabinoids (the NPS most often identified with cathinones), concerns 1.3% of adults and 4% of young people of 17 years: people "Rather young, masculine, graduated and urban".
We can also enlarge the focal length. It appears then that the drugs consumed today – in France as in Europe – are more and more diversified and that the practices of the people who consume them remain marked by poly-consumption.
"These last years have been marked by an increased access to illicit products (by mail or by home delivery, via social networks …)."
"Far from the fixed representation of the drug user as an injecting heroin addict, the users of illicit drugs present profiles, practices and modes of use of very diversified substances. Thus, heroin is nowadays mostly sniffed, while the consumption of cocaine in a form "based", that is to say, transformed by the users themselves to be inhaled (free base), is growing."
"Overall, among the population of drug users, the proportion of injectors, which had declined since the early 2000s, seems to be stabilizing. In this context, the injection appears more clearly as a marker of precariousness. As the growing differentiation of drug consumption patterns, the profile of users shows a greater variety, socially inserted users (frequenting or not "festive" spaces) to precarious users (now including a part not negligible number of young people wandering and migrants). Finally, in recent years have been marked by increased access to illicit products (by post or by home delivery, via social networks …).
Sanitary and social damages? They remain massive. Smoking and "Harmful consumptionAlcohol is the two leading causes of preventable death in France, causing one in five deaths (73,000 deaths per year attributable to tobacco and 41,000 to alcohol). Alcohol-related mortality is lower than the previous one (49,000 deaths in 2009) – less because of the decrease in average daily consumption than a better management of diseases related to the excessive use of beverages alcoholics.
Illicit drug-related mortality remains mainly related to acute intoxication, where opioid substances play a major role. However, some cases of acute cannabis intoxication have been reported: thus, since 2013, around 30 deaths per year involving cannabis (often in combination with other products) have been identified.
Increase in cannabis supply
Broadening the focus also means observing that over the last two decades, the market for illicit drugs and psychoactive products has continued to change globally, both in terms of demand and, more importantly, from the point of view of the offer.
"Today, seizures of cannabis resin and heroin in France are among the largest in Western Europe."
"While the turnover of the alcohol industry is estimated at 25 billion euros in France, against 19 billion euros for tobacco, that of the cannabis market is estimated at 1.1 billion euros. in a national illicit drug market estimated at 2.3 billion euros, according to the latest national estimates. It remains dominated by cannabis, despite a significant increase in cocaine and heroin. The quantities of drugs seized are one of the indicators of expansion of supply. The year 2017 was thus marked by a record volume of cannabis herb seizures (20 tons in 2017, against less than 5 tons in 2013), even if it remains below the volumes of resin or cocaine (17 , 5 tons in 2017, against 5.6 tons in 2013). Today, seizures of cannabis resin and heroin in France are among the largest in Western Europe, both in terms of volume and number of seizures. "
"In the recent period, cannabis, which already accounted for most of the illicit drug retail market, appears to have increased as a result of rising domestic production (self-cultivation), d dynamic traffic from other parts of the world and the multiplication of supply vectors. The volumes of grass (23% of seizures of cannabis in 2017, against 10% in 2013) and cannabis plants (nearly 140,000) intercepted by the police (customs, gendarmerie, police) testify of the place growing grass on the French cannabis market. Even if it remains dominated by resin, the grass now seems to meet a demand from consumers, especially among the youngest. At the same time, with widespread access to the internet, online markets have become more important. "
More generally, the supply of drugs is "Continuous renewal dynamic", which is based in particular on the growth of more dosed products, probably reflecting the search for faster and more intense effects. A usual commercial dynamic in the field of products with a strong addictive component.
Faced with these figures, these evolving phenomena, these "festive" behaviors and these dramas, what should be the action of public authorities, health authorities, economic leaders? "No society escapes the question of the control of the use of" drugs ". To what extent do we collectively decide to deprive ourselves of certain freedoms because they can ultimately cause us too much harm? This statement of political philosophy has continued to challenge for centuries, especially in liberal democracies, sums up Professor Bruno Falissard, president of the scientific college of the OFDT. Should we adopt a seemingly rational stance, allowing the least dangerous substances and excluding the others? Or should we consider the history and culture of a country to decide? "
"The void that inhabits every human being sometimes calls for a pharmacological palliative."
It is with this yardstick that the major question of the decriminalization or legalization of cannabis must be raised – a question that the current executive power refuses, like the previous ones, to raise publicly. It will be observed that despite the scope of the subject it was radically excluded from the great national debate.
We can also reduce the focal length. "The void that inhabits every human being sometimes calls for the rescue of a pharmacological palliative, writes Professor Falissard again in the preface to the OFDT report. As the poet Jacques Higelin sang, alcohol "heals and heals, the madness that accompanies me, and never betrayed me". Alcohol can actually soften intolerable distress. There is unfortunately a price to pay: eventually, alcohol can make authentically crazy. Not to mention, of course, the effect on multiple organs with the tens of thousands of deaths that entails each year in France. More generally, we are often fascinated by this issue of addiction because it challenges our ability to be free. We have all seen and even perhaps experienced the impossibility of refusing a cigarette. To confront an addictive substance is also to see how far we can say "yes" or "no". This is not an easy task. " Who would dare to support the opposite?
Here’s what you need to know before seeing your local medical dispensary:You may require a physician’s recommendation, medical cannabis certification, and/or whatever proper documentation is needed by your condition. Typically, you need to be 18 or older to qualify for a medical consent, but exceptions could be made in some states for minors with particularly debilitating problems. You will often enroll with a medicinal dispensary. This is to keep your medical cannabis recommendation or certificate on file for regulatory and legal purposes. There will be a waiting space. This will be to control the flow of patients and product, but a simple dividing wall gives patients privacy and direct one-on-one contact using a budtender to discuss medical issues. Many times, but not always, your purchases will be monitored by medical dispensaries. This procedure can assist budtenders and patients monitor effective medication as well as possess a living listing of producers and goods for future reference and follow up. Medicinal dispensaries usually allow you to smell and examine the buds prior to buy. This might differ from state-to-state.
DOES AN APPLICANT NEED MUNICIPAL APPROVAL BEFORE RECEIVING A RETAIL CANNABIS LICENSE? Yes, municipal approval is necessary prior to the AGLC will issue a retail cannabis license. Applicants must get in touch with their intended municipality to find out requirements regarding municipal retail cannabis legislation, zoning requirements, land-use restrictions, and place requirements regarding how near a retail shop can be to a provincial health care centre, school, or parcel of land designated as a college book.
Keep non-medical cannabis legal Adults who are 19 years or older are able to:Possess up to 30 gram of authorized dried cannabis or the equivalent in their own person. Share up to 30 gram of legal cannabis along with other adults in Canada. Purchase cannabis goods from a Yukon Liquor Corporation licensed retailer. Grow up to four plants per family. It’s illegal to present non invasive cannabis to anyone below the age of 19 and also for anyone under the age of 19 to possess any amount of non-medical cannabis in Yukon.It is dangerous and illegal to drive while under the influence of cannabis or other intoxicants.